What Are Neoplasia, Tumors, And Cancer?

What is meant by neoplasia?

Neoplasia is a condition of developing abnormal growth of cells or mass and the abnormal growth itself is called a neoplasm. It can be benign, precancerous growth, malignant or cancerous tumor. Neoplasm means new growths in the Greek language.

Neoplasms grow on the surface of your skin. They can also grow inside of skin such as ear canals or nostrils. Neoplasm bumps are located deep in the skin surface and can’t be noticed unless they grow big. Neoplasms are the same as skin or have a different color. They do not cause any pain but may bleed and hurt. They grow very slowly.

Symptoms of Neoplastic disease

There are some common symptoms of the neoplastic disease:

  1. Anemia (low RBC count)
  2. Appetite loss
  3. Lesions
  4. Skin growths
  5. Chills and fever
  6. Diarrhea and blood in stools
  7. Pain in the abdomen
  8. Fatigue that does not go away
  9. Shortness of breath

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Symptoms

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia MEN Type 1 Symptoms

  1. Constipation
  2. Ulcers
  3. Cushing’s syndrome
  4. Changes in vision
  5. Inflammation of the esophagus
  6. Diarrhea and pain in the abdomen
  7. Hyperparathyroidism
  8. High levels of gastrin
  9. Tiredness or weakness
  10. Pain in the muscles
  11. Kidney stones
  12. Thinning of bones
  13. Headaches
  14. Sexual malfunction & infertility
  15. Excess production of breast milk
  16. Bones enlargement and pain in the bones

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B Symptoms

  1. Growths around nerves of mucous membranes, such as the lips and tongue
  2. The curvature of the spine
  3. Loose joints and Long limbs
  4. Being tall and slender
  5. Thickening of the eyelids and lips
  6. Small benign tumors on the lips and tongue
  7. Abnormalities of bones of feet and thighs
  8. Enlargement and irritation of the large intestine

Difference between cancer, tumor, neoplasia, or neoplasm

  1. Malignant tumors are cancers in the true sense. It is wrong to mix the term cancer with neoplasm. Any abnormal growth in the tissues of the body is called neoplasm and the condition is known as neoplasia. While the tumors are mass on the body and may be benign or malignant.
  2. The tumor is any form of swelling, neoplastic or not. The tumor is a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells. The term tumor meant swelling due to inflammation. But now this term is used within the domain of neoplasia.
  3. Neoplasms is synonymous with tumor. The tumor is not a synonym for cancer. While Cancer is malignant a tumor can be benign, precancerous, or malignant.
  4. Neoplasms can be benign mass, cancer, or pre-cancerous tumors. A neoplasm is also known as a tumor. A benign neoplasm is not dangerous as it is a pre-cancerous tumor. However, malignant tumors are cancerous. They can metastasize to other tissues and organs.

Causes of neoplasm or neoplastic disease

The exact causes of these tumor growths are unknown. But mutations in DNA give rise to cancerous growths. Improper functioning of DNA or changes in DNA within cells causes them to divide rapidly and unchecked thus giving rise to tumors and growths. Some common factors that cause benign or malignant tumor growth are:

  1. Age
  2. Diet
  3. Stress
  4. Obesity
  5. Genetics
  6. Smoking and Drinking
  7. Chemical toxins in the environment
  8. Radiation exposure
  9. Hormones and immune disorders
  10. Trauma or injury
  11. Viruses, Infection, and inflammation

Cure of malignant neoplasm

Diagnosis at an early stage is important. As soon as possible malignant neoplasm is detected, and the more effectively it can be cured. About 90 % of cases are diagnosed early. But if it is diagnosed late when the tumor has spread then the patient can’t be treated by simply removing the tumor.

Types of Neoplasm

Benign or non-cancerous Neoplasms

A benign neoplasm does not have cellular features of cancer or pre-cancer cells. Benign neoplasms are called birthmarks. They appear differently from cancerous or pre-cancerous cells. You can not differentiate whether a neoplasm is benign or not. A neoplasm is considered benign if it can’t spread through the bloodstream. They are not dangerous usually but if benign neoplasms press on surrounding nerves, they need treatment. Usually, surgery is performed to remove the tumor. Radiotherapy may also be used to treat them.

Characteristics of Benign or non-cancerous neoplasms:

  1. Benign tumors usually grow slowly.
  2. Benign tumors are generally not life-threatening.
  3. It has not so much potential to invade surrounding tissues or cells.
  4. Benign tumors such as fibroids may cause serious bleeding and pain.
  5. Some benign develop in the epithelial tissue.
  6. Some benign neoplasms can grow in any organ such as fibromas.
  7. Some benign neoplasms such as hemangioma cause a disturbance in eating, hearing, or vision, they must be removed.
  8. Lipomas are the most common type of benign neoplasm found in adults.
  9. Different types of benign tumors can arise in different bodily structures. Examples of benign neoplasm include:
    • Adenomas such as a polyp in the colon need surgery for removal.
    • Skin moles and tags such as acrochordons are common.
    • Encapsulated skin growths: These are caused by an infection or insect bites.
    • Fibromas are growths that develop in the connective or fibrous tissue.
    • Hemangiomas are red or blue-colored growth thatarisese due to the accumulation of blood vessel cells in the skin or internal organs.
    • Keloids are raised scar tissues.
    • Lipomas arise from fat cells and develop in the back, arms, neck, or shoulders. They are soft to touch.
    • Uterine fibroids

Pre-malignant or pre-cancerous Neoplasms

A cancerous or pre-cancerous neoplasm has abnormal cells that have not spread but can become cancerous if not treated. A pre-cancerous tumor has features of a malignant tumor. Sometimes, mutations may go away by themselves. Anyhow, in some cases, these cells can become malignant and cancerous. They spread and convert into cancer. The different types of premalignant changes that can arise are the following:

  • (1) Atypia means the ells look atypical which may be caused by inflammation and healing and may go away after healing.
  • (2) In Dysplasia, cells are abnormal and disorganized. People with dysplasia are checked regularly to start the cure if cells change drastically.
  • (3) Hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the number of cells.
  • (4) Metaplasia is not usually precancerous, but in some cases is. Cells look normal but are not like the cell type found in the body.

Malignant neoplasm

A metastatic neoplasm is defined as cancer. It is most often associated with damage to a cell’s DNA. A malignant neoplasm is composed of the physical mass of cells that are the result of genetic mutations. These mutations cause abnormal cells to lose their normal function. If left untreated, these cancerous cells divide rapidly in an uncontrolled way. Cancer is a neoplasm that can grow rapidly, spread, and cause damage to the body. They multiply faster, live longer, and invade other cells and tissue.

A metastatic neoplasm is a cancer that has spread to nearby or distant areas of the body. The treatments for treating cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.

Characteristics of malignant neoplasms

The characteristics of malignant neoplasms include:

  1. Abnormal cell growth
  2. The more rapid increase in size
  3. Capacity to invade other surrounding tissues
  4. Tendency to spread to distant organs
  5. Lack of differentiation known as anaplasia
  6. Irregular or bizarre mitoses
  7. It has a higher rate of proliferation
  8. A malignant neoplasm can grow in any part of the body

Main Types of Cancer

Some of the main types of cancer are:

  • (1) Leukemia affects bone marrow. Mostly, abnormal cells are produced in the bone marrow.
  • (2) Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates in the immune system.
  • (3) Sarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in bone fat, muscle, blood vessels, cartilage, bone, or connective tissues.
  • (4) Cancer of the central nervous system originates in the brain and spinal cord.
  • (5) Malignant neoplasms derived from epithelial cells are known as carcinomas. Carcinoma is cancer that begins in the skin or tissues that line internal organs.

Spread of Malignant Neoplasms

  1. They spread to lymph nodes through lymphatic channels.
  2. They also spread within body cavities such as the peritoneal cavity.
  3. Malignant Neoplasms invade and extend into surrounding tissues.
  4. Through hematogenous spread, malignant neoplasms spread through the bloodstream.

Diagnosis of neoplastic disease

Tests used to diagnose neoplastic diseases and cancers are:

  1. Physical exam and health history
  2. Blood and urine immunoglobulin studies
  3. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
  4. Complete blood count (CBC)
  5. Cytogenetic analysis
  6. FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization
  7. Mammograms
  8. Ultrasounds
  9. X-rays
  10. Endoscopy
  11. Flow cytometry
  12. PET-CT scan
  13. PET scan (positron emission tomography scan)
  14. Skeletal bone survey
  15. Blood chemistry studies
  16. Twenty-four-hour urine test
  17. CT scan (CAT scan)
  18. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

Cyst VS neoplasm

Cysts in sebaceous glands or Breast cysts are a form of benign tumor. A cyst is a sac of tissue that is filled with air or fluid. Cysts can form anywhere on the body such as on bones and soft tissues.

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